(i) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)

It refers to the minimum amount of funds that a commercial bank has to maintain with the Reserve Bank of India, in the form of deposits. For example, suppose the total assets of a bank are worth Rs 200 crores and the minimum cash reserve ratio is 10%. Then the amount that the commercial bank has to maintain with RBI is Rs 20 crores. If this ratio rises to 20%, then the reserve with RBI increases to Rs 40 crores. Thus, less money will be left with the commercial bank for lending. This will eventually lead to considerable decrease in the money supply. On the contrary, a fall in CRR will lead to an increase in the money supply.

(ii) Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)

SLR is concerned with maintaining the minimum reserve of assets with RBI, whereas the cash reserve ratio is concerned with maintaining cash balance (reserve) with RBI. So, SLR is defined as the minimum percentage of assets to be maintained in the form of either fixed or liquid assets with RBI. The flow of credit is reduced by increasing this liquidity ratio and vice-versa. In the previous example, this can be understood as rise in SLR will restrict the banks to pump money in the economy, thereby contributing towards decrease in money supply. The reverse case happens if there is a fall in SLR, as it increases the money supply in the economy.

1.) Repo Rate :

Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it form RBI. Repo rate is the rate at which commercial banks borrows rupees from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing form RBI becomes more expensive.

2.) Reverse Repo Rate :

Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from commercial banks. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money is in the safe hands with a good interest. An increase in reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due to this attractive interest rates. One factor which
encourages an organization to enter into reverse repo is that it earns some extra income on its otherwise idle cash.

1)Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) :

MSF rate is the rate at which banks borrow funds overnight from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) against approved government securities.

2) Bank Rate :

The interest rate at which at central bank lends money to commercial banks. Often these loans are very short in duration. Managing the bank rate is a preferred method by which central banks can regulate the level of economic activity. Lower bank rates can help to expand the economy, when unemployment is high, by lowering
the cost of funds for borrowers. Conversely, higher bank rates help to reign in the economy, when inflation is higher than desired.


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